Walter E. Williams bio photo

Walter E. Williams

Bradley Prize Winner 2017

Professor of Economics.
(703) 993-1148
D158 Buchanan Hall
Department of Economics
George Mason University

Related Sites:
The homepage of George Mason University.
Homepage of the Department of Economics at GMU.

Walter E. Williams


Books    Monographs    Journal Articles and Notes    Book Reviews    Miscellaneous Articles and Reports    Interviews


  • The State Against Blacks, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982).
  • America: A Minority Viewpoint, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1982).
  • All It Takes Is Guts, (Washington, D. C.: Regnery-Gateway, 1987).
  • South Africa’s War Against Capitalism, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989).
  • South Africa’s War Against Capitalism, (Cape Town, South Africa: Juta Publishers, Ltd., 1990) revised edition.
  • Do The Right Thing: The People’s Economist Speaks, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1995).
  • More Liberty Means Less Government, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1999).
  • Liberty Versus the Tyranny of Socialism, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2008).
  • Up from the Projects: An Autobiography, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2010).
  • Race and Economics: How Much Can Be Blamed on Discrimination? (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2011).
  • American Contempt for Liberty (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2015). Return to Top


  • Youth and Minority Unemployment, commissioned by the U. S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, 95th Congress, 1st Session (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, July, 1977).
  • Youth and Minority Unemployment, (California: Hoover Institution Press, 1977). This is an unexpurgated version of the Joint Economic Committee report. Return to Top

Journal Articles and Notes

  • “Political Decentralization,” American Economic Review (May, 1971), pp. 465-67.
  • “Why the Poor Pay More: An Alternative Explanation,” Social Science Quarterly (September, 1973), pp. 372-79.
  • “Some Hard Questions on Minority Businesses,” Negro Educational Review (April/July, 1974), pp. 123-42.
  • “Racial Price Discrimination: A Note,” Economic Inquiry (January, 1977), pp. 147-50.
  • “Racial Price Discrimination: A Further Note,” Economic Inquiry (July, 1978), p. 457.
  • “Government Sanctioned Restraints that Reduce Economic Opportunities for Minorities,” Policy Review (Fall, 1977), pp. 1-24. A revised reprint was published by Policy Review. (July, 1978).
  • “Legal Restriction on Black Progress,” Howard University Law Journal (January, 1978), pp. 47-71.
  • “Higher Education and Minority Opportunities,” Howard Law Journal Vol. 21, No.2, 1978, pp. 545-557.
  • “Tuition Tax Credits: Other Benefits,” Policy Review (Spring, 1978), pp. 58-89.
  • “Racism and Organized Labor,” Lincoln Review (Spring, 1979), pp. 25-34.
  • “Freedom to Contract: Blacks and Labor Organizations: in Black America and Organized Labor: A Fair Deal with Laurin A. Smith and Wendall W. Gunn (Washington, D. C.: Lincoln Institute, 1980).
  • “Freedom to Contract: Blacks and Labor Organizations,” Government Union Review (Summer 1981), pp. 28-47.
  • “Male-Female Earnings Differentials: A Critical Reappraisal,” with Walter Block in The Journal of Labor Research Vol. II, No. 2, pp. 385-88 (Fall, 1981).
  • “On Discrimination, Prejudice, and Racial Income Differentials, and Affirmative Action,” in Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Equal Opportunity, ed., by Walter Block and Michael Walker (Vancouver, B. C.: The Fraser Institute, 1982) pp. 68-99.
  • “The Minimum Wage and the Davis-Bacon Act: Comment,” Journal of Labor Research (Fall 1982), pp. 408-410.
  • “Minimum Wage - Maximum Folly and Demagoguery” in The Journal/The Institute for Socioeconomic Studies (Winter, 1983), pp. 22-34.
  • A Symposium: “Is Supply-Side Economics Dead?” in The American Spectator (November, 1983), p. 22.
  • “Which Way America-Left or Right?” in Economics 83/84 ed. by Reuben Slesinger and Glen Beeson, pp. 15-19.
  • “Discrimination, Productivity and Marriage” in Equal Pay for Unequal Work ed. by Phyllis Schlafly, 1984, pp. 93-100.
  • “Good Intentions - Bad Results: The Economy Pastoral and America’s Disadvantaged” - Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy Vol. II, No. l (Spring, 1985), pp. 179-199.
  • “Welfare, Family Cohesiveness, and Out-of-Wedlock Births,” with Gregory B. Christainsen in The Family and the State ed. by Fred R. Glahe and Joseph R. Peden (California: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1986), pp. 381-424.
  • “Work, Wealth and Welfare” in Transaction/Society January/February 1986, pp. 23-25.
  • “Discrimination and Public Policy” in Selected Affirmative Action Topics in Employment and Business Set-Asides Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1985), pp. 9-19.
  • “How Business Transcends Politics,” Management & Decision Economics Vol. 8, No. 1 (March, 1987), pp. 15-20.
  • “The False Civil Rights Vision,” Georgia Law Review (Summer, 1987), pp. 1119-1139.
  • “Cigarettes and Property Rights,” in Clearing the Air: Perspectives on Environmental Tobacco Smoke Chapter 5, ed., Robert Tollison, Massachusetts D. C. Heath & Company, 1988).
  • “Enlightened Discrimination,” Southern African Freedom Review Vol. 3, No. 4 (February 1991), pp. 36-43.
  • “False Civil Rights Vision and Contempt for Rule of Law,” Georgetown Law Review (1991), pp. 801-06.
  • “Why Urban Problems Persist,” Southern California Law Review Vol. 66, No. 4 (May 1993) pp. 1665-1673.
  • “Ethnic Minorities and Work,” in Work and Employment ed., David Marsland (Minnesota: Paragon House, 1994), pp. 125-144.
  • “The Argument for Free Markets: Morality vs. Efficiency,” The Cato Journal (Fall, 1996), pp. 179-189.
  • “The Economics of the Colour Bar,” Journal of Labor Research (Spring, 1997).
  • “Affirmative Action Can’t Be Mended,” The Cato Journal (Fall, 1997). Pp. 1-10.
  • “Blackmail,” The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, ed. Charles K. Rowley & Friedrich Schneider (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 41-43.
  • “Discrimination,” The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, ed. Charles K. Rowley & Friedrich Schneider (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 153-157.
  • “Discrimination: The Law vs. Morality,” Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy (Fall 2003) pp. 111-136. Also available at: Return to Top

Book Reviews

  • “The Unequal Elites,” Policy Analysis (Summer, 1977), pp. 554-57.
  • “The Declining Significance of Race,” and “Protest, Politics and Prosperity,” reviewed in Public Interest (Fall, 1978), pp. 47-54.
  • “Meanness Mania,” by Gerald R. Gill, Reason (July 1981), p. 61.
  • “Ethnic America,” by Thomas Sowell, The American Spectator (December 1981).
  • “Midnight Economist,” by William Allen, The American Spectator (December 1981).
  • “Knowledge and Decisions,” by Thomas Sowell, The American Spectator (December 1981).
  • “Economics of Income Redistribution,” Reason (February, 1984), p. 59 and p. 62.
  • “Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980,” by Charles Murray, Business Horizons (March/April, 1985), pp. 86-87.
  • “Racial Conflict and Economic Development,” W. Arthur Lewis, Journal of Economic Literature (March, 1986), pp. 144-45.
  • “Family and Nation,” Patrick Moynihan, Reason (October, 1986), pp. 52-54.
  • “In the Shadow of the Poorhouse,” Michael B. Katz, Reason (July, 1987), pp. 52-54.
  • “Closing the Gap: Forty Years of Black Progress,” Finis Welch and James Smith, American Planning Association Journal (Autumn, 1987).
  • “Black and Gold: Tycoons, Revolutionaries and Apartheid,” by Anthony Sampson, Bankers Magazine.
  • “In Pursuit of Happiness and Good Government,” by Charles Murray, Reason (December, 1988), pp. 40-42.
  • “Journey Continued,” by Alan Paton, Reason (June, 1989), pp. 54-56.
  • “The Economics of Apartheid,” by Stephen R. Lewis, Jr., CATO Journal (1991), pp. 329-30.
  • “Wandering in the Wilderness,” by Nicholas Lemann, Reason (October, 1991), pp 60-62.
  • “The New Politics of Poverty,” by Lawrence Mead, The Washington Times May 24, 1992.
  • “Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal,” by Andrew Hacker, Society (January/February 1993), p. 93.
  • “How to Rescue the Economy from Crushing Debt & Restore the American Dream,” by Peter G. Peterson, The World & I June, 1994.
  • “Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America,” by Martin Carnoy, The Wall Street Journal (November 7, 1994).
  • “Darwin’s Athletes: How Sport Has Damaged Black America and Preserved the Myth of Race,” by John Hoberman, The Washington Times March 9, 1997.
  • “Rewarding Work: How To Restore Participation and Support to Free Enterprise,” by Edmund S. Phelps, CATO Regulation Winter, 1998.
  • “A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America”, by Shelby Steele, The Washington Times October 21, 1998.
  • “The Origins and Demise of South African Apartheid: A Public Choice Analysis”, by Anton D. Lowenberg and William H. Kaempfer, The Independent Review Volume 4, Number 1, July, 1999.
  • “Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We’re Afraid to Talk About It,” by Jon Entine, The American Enterprise, April/May, 2000.
  • “The Quest for Cosmic Justice,” by Thomas Sowell, Society magazine, January/February 2001.
  • “Race Experts: How Racial Etiquette, Sensitivity Training, and New Age Therapy Hijacked the Civil Rights Revolution,” by Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn, The Washington Times, January 20, 2002.
  • “The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration,” by Carol M. Swain, Ideas on Liberty, May 2003, pp. 60-61.
  • “Minimum Wages,” Regulation (Summer, 2009), pp. 62-63. Return to Top

Miscellaneous Articles and Reports

  • “Minority Education: Some Economic Questions,” in U. S. Civil Rights Commission Hearing, Milliken v. Bradley: The Implications for Metropolitan Desegregation (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1974), pp. 103-14.
  • “Racial Discrimination: An Alternative Perspective,” in The Writer and the World: Essays by Sidney Hook Walter E. Williams, and A. Lawrence Chickering (Pepperdine University, May 1976), pp. 16-29.
  • “Racial Price Discrimination: A Note,” Economic Inquiry (1977).
  • “Racial Discrimination and the Law,” New Guard (January, 1978).
  • “The New Jim Crow Laws,” Reason (August, 1978), pp. 16-23.
  • “Obstacles to Slum Neighborhood Revitalization,” a report to National Commission on Neighborhoods (October, 1978).
  • “Racial Reasoning in Unfree Markets,” Regulation (March/April, 1979).
  • “Minimum Wage - Maximum Folly,” Newsweek, (September 23, 1979), also in The Wall Street Journal (September 13, 1979).
  • “The Shameful Roots of Minority Unemployment,” Reader’s Digest (October, 1979).
  • “Should the Minimum Wage Law be Abolished?” in Government, Regulation and the Economy ed., Bernard Siegan (D.C. Heath & Company, 1980), pp. 25-46.
  • “The Poor as First Victims of the Welfare State,” in Champions of Freedom: The Ludwig von Mises Lecture Series ed., Ronald L. Trowbridge, (Hillsdale, Michigan: The Hillsdale College Press, 1980).
  • Comment on Lee Benham, “Demand for Occupational Licensing,” and Alex Maurizi, “The Impact of Licensing on Quality,” in Occupational Licensing and Regulation ed., Simon Rottenberg (Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1980), pp.36-38.
  • “Carter has Given Peanut Shells to the Disadvantaged,” The Conservative Virginian (October 1980).
  • “The Shameful Roots of Minority Unemployment,” Competition (November 1980).
  • “Legal Barriers to Black Economic Gains: Employment and Transportation,” in The Fairmont Papers (December 1980).
  • “Minimum Wage – Minimum Unemployment,” New Generation (Winter 1981).
  • “Recipe for a Good Society,” American Spectator (July, 1982).
  • “Social Insecurity,” The Washington Spectator (January 1983).
  • “Taxes, Taxis and the Poor,” The New York Times (January 8, 1983).
  • “Social Security,” Newsweek (January 24, 1983).
  • “Beware the Well-Intentioned,” The New York Times (May 15, 1983).
  • “Explaining the Economic Gender Gap,” NCPA Policy Report No. 108 (November, 1983), pp. 1-19.
  • “Racial Discrimination and the Law,” New Guard (Winter 1983-84)
  • “Uncle Sam’s Economic Racism,” Reason (June/July 1985).
  • “Do Deficits Really Matter?” Wealth (Spring 1986).
  • “Civil Rightsspeak,” New Perspectives (Winter/Spring, 1986), pp. 14-17.
  • “Intelligent Bayesian,” The New Republic (November, 1986), p. 18.
  • “Affirmative Action Today,” Bureau of National Affairs: Special Report (1986), pp. 162-165.
  • “South Africa’s Victory Against Capitalism,” Economic Affairs (October/November, 1986), pp. 23-25.
  • “More Perfect Union,” Reason (May, 1988), pp. 34-35. “After Apartheid,” an interview with Frances Kendall and Leon Louw, Reason, July, 1988), pp. 31-36.
  • “Fairness and Justice: Process vs. Results,” The Freeman (October, 1988), pp. 31-36.
  • “The Economics of Discrimination,” Record, Society of Actuaries Vol. 14. No. 14B (October 1988).
  • “The Welfare State and Morality,” The Optimist (November/December 1988).
  • “Take the Challenge: Do You Have the Guts to Succeed on Your Own?” Success (January/February 1989).
  • “Why We’re Number One: Competing With Each Other Makes Americans the Best,” Success (March 1989).
  • “Contraindications,” Administrative Radiology (May 1989).
  • “Race, Scholarship, and Affirmative Action: Campus Racism,” National Review (May, 1989), pp. 36-38.
  • “Marknadskrafterna avskaffar apartheid,” Contra (1990).
  • “South Africa’s War Against Capitalism,” Business Day (January 25, 1990).
  • “Triumph Over Capitalism,” Reason (April, 1990), pp. 46-47.
  • “South Africa’s War Against Capitalism,” Fraser Forum (April, 1990), pp. 4-15.
  • “Myth Making and Reality Testing,” Society (May/June, 1990), pp. 4-7.
  • “Paying People Not to Work; Uncle Sam is Destroying Your Work Force,” Success (June 1990).
  • “Fighting Off the Snakes: Defend Yourself against Congress,” Success (July/August 1990).
  • “The Sex Police: Today’s Judges Think You’re a Bigot,” Success (November 1990).
  • “How Much Can Discrimination Explain?” in The Free Market and the Black Community, Champions of Freedom Vol. 16 (Hillsdale, Michigan: Hillsdale College Press), 1990, pp. 15-24.
  • “Masking Evil,” New Dimensions (December 1990).
  • “What Blacks Can Do For Themselves,” The Philadelphia Inquirer (January 12, 1991).
  • “The Santa Claus Syndrome: Dumb Laws Will Not Help the Disabled,” Success, January/February 1991)
  • “Ending Ethnic Socialism,” National Review (March 18, 1991), pp. 45-48.
  • “The Politics of Envy,” Destiny (March/April 1991).
  • “Uncharitable Activities,” Philip Morris Magazine (Winter, 1991), pp. 25-26.
  • “After Civil Rights,” in Second Thoughts About Race in America edited by Peter Collier and David Horowitz, New York: Madison Books, 1991), pp. 29-32.
  • “Inner Cities: What Government Can and Cannot Do to Help,” Jobs and Capital Summer 1992.
  • “Jolly Green Tyrants: Environmental Lies Are Choking Your Business,” Success (June 1992).
  • “Our Rights at Risk,” State Government News Summer, 1992.
  • “The Legitimate Role of Government in a Free Society,” Investor Guide (September 1992).
  • “A False Vision of Black Problems,” Journal of Policy History Vol. 4, No. 3, 1992.
  • “What Trade Laws Cost You,” Readers Digest May, 1993.
  • “Legitimate Role of Government in a Free Economy,” American College, Frank M. Engle Lecture Series Publication (August, 1993).
  • “Nelson Mandela’s Greatest Challenge,” Readers Digest September, 1994.
  • “Creating Failure,” The Pennsylvania Scholar Vol. 2, No. 2, Fall, 1994.
  • “Rape versus Seduction: Liberty and the Role of Government,” Journal of The Medical Association of Georgia (January, 1995), pp. 25-28.
  • “Sex, Families, Race, Poverty, Welfare,” The American Enterprise (January/February 1995).
  • “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems,” American Quarterly (Fall, 1995).
  • “Racial and Sexual Discrimination,” Vision & Values: Grove City College (December 1995).
  • “The Welfare Debate,” Society (July-August, 1996).
  • “Justice in the Process, Not in the Results,” Academic Questions (Fall 1996).
  • “North Philly: Yesterday and Today,” American Enterprise (November-December, 1996).
  • “Comments on James Q. Wilson’s Compromise on Affirmative Action in American Higher Education,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education Spring, 1997 Number 15, page 106.
  • “Racial and Sexual Discrimination,” The Enterpriser, a publication of the Probasco Chair of Free Enterprise and its Center for Economic Education, (Spring, 1997).
  • “Drugs, Economics and Liberty,” The Enterpriser, a publication of the Probasco Chair of Free Enterprise and its Center for Economic Education, (Spring, 1998).
  • “Manufacturing Race Conflict,” The Good Society, Volume 8, Number 1, (Winter, 1998).
  • “Republican Challenge,” Rising Tide, Republican National Committee, (Spring 1999).
  • “Should the Confederate Battle Flag Be Banned From All Public Buildings?” Insight, (February 2000).
  • “Capitalism and the Common Man,” The Enterpriser (Spring 2000)
  • “Capitalism and the Common Man,” Fraser Forum (June 2000).
  • “Fairness, Justice and the Market,” in The Visible Hand: The Challenge to Private Enterprise in the 21st Century, edited by Francis W. Rushing, (2000).
  • “The Legitimate Role of Government in a Free Society,” Imprimis,(August 2000).
  • “The Role of Government in a Free Society,” Champions of Freedom: Competition or Compulsion? The Market Economy versus The New Social Engineering, The Ludwig von Mises Lecture Series, Volume 28, Hillsdale College Press, Hillsdale, MI (2001).
  • “Affirmative Action Can’t Be Mended,” Toward Liberty: The Idea That Is Changing the World, ed. David Boaz (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, (2002), pp. 442-451.
  • “The Entrepreneur As American Hero,” Imprimis (March 2005).
  • “Foreword,” The Road to Serfdom, Institute of Economic Affairs, (2005).
  • “Future Prospects for Economic Liberty,” Imprimis (September 2009).
  • “Who’s To Blame?,” Freedom Watch, The American Spectator, (February 2010).


  • Interview “Lower Minimum Wage for Teens?” U.S. News and World Report (December 15, 1980).
  • Interview “Why Reagan Presidency Could be Good for U.S. Blacks,” Human Events (January 31, 1981).
  • “Hello Little Brother, Another View: Dr. Walter Williams” by Malcolm A. Kline, Management (1984).
  • Interview “On Helping the Poor,” The Gambier Journal (May 1985).
  • Interview “Dangers of Inflation Now Much Greater,” The Aden Interviews (June 1987).
  • Interview “On Liberty’s Moral Superiority,” The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & Liberty (November/December 1994).
  • Interview, Southern Partisan (1999).
  • Interview by Abdiweli Ali, The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship (July 2005).